Paul Beringer, PharmD
Faculty Directory

Paul BeringerPharmD

Paul BeringerPharmD

Professor of the Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy

Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy

Paul Beringer received his PharmD degree from USC Mann. He completed a pharmacy practice residency and specialty residency in pharmacokinetics at the University of California at San Francisco. He served as chair of the Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy at USC Mann from 2017-2022. Currently, he is professor of clinical pharmacy and associate professor of clinical medicine with the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC.

Beringer’s clinical expertise is in the area of cystic fibrosis pharmacotherapy. He has authored numerous journal articles and book chapters in the area of pharmacokinetics and cystic fibrosis.

Areas of Expertise

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Host Defense Peptides
  • Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Therapies
  • Education

    University of California at San Francisco


    University of Southern California


  • Links
  • Selected Articles

    The Potential for QT Interval Prolongation with Chronic Azithromycin Therapy in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PM Beringer et al.

    2019 A retrospective study was conducted over a 3-year period in an adult CF center. QTc values were recorded from electrocardiograms. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Standard QTc prolongation definitions (males ≥ 450 msec, females ≥ 470 msec) were used.

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    Pharmacokinetics of Tedizolid in Plasma and Sputum of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

    American Society for Microbiology
    PM Beringer et al.

    2018 Over the past decade, the prevalence of infections involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased significantly. Tedizolid (TZD) demonstrates excellent activity against MRSA and a favorable safety profile. The pharmacokinetics of several antibiotics have been shown to be altered in CF patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of tedizolid in this population. Eleven patients with CF were randomized to receive tedizolid phosphate at 200 mg orally or intravenously once daily for 3 doses with a minimum 2-day washout, followed by crossover to the remaining dosage form. Plasma and expectorated sputum were collected following the third dose of each dosage form for analysis. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization method, and the disposition of TZD was described by a two-compartment model. The sputum concentrations exceeded the unbound plasma concentrations with an estimated mean sputum-to-unbound plasma penetration ratio of 2.88 (coefficient of variation, 50.3%). The estimated population mean ± standard deviation of total clearance, central volume of distribution, and bioavailability were 9.72 ± 1.62 liters/h, 61.6 ± 6.94 liters, and 1.04 ± 0.232, respectively. The total clearance was higher in CF patients than in healthy volunteers; however, it was similar to published data for patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). This study demonstrates that the oral bioavailability of tedizolid is excellent in patients with CF and that the plasma pharmacokinetics are similar to those reported for patients with cSSSIs.

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    Rhesus θ-Defensin-1 Attenuates Endotoxin-induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Proinflammatory Cytokines and Neutrophil Recruitment.

    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
    PM Beringer et al.

    2018 Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute respiratory failure and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Rhesus θ-defensin (RTD)-1 is an antimicrobial peptide with immunomodulatory activity. As airway inflammation and neutrophil recruitment and activation are hallmarks of ALI, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of RTD-1 in preclinical models of the disease. We investigated the effect of RTD-1 on neutrophil chemotaxis and macrophage-driven pulmonary inflammation with human peripheral neutrophils and LPS-stimulated murine alveolar macrophage (denoted MH-S) cells. Treatment and prophylactic single escalating doses were administered subcutaneously in a well-established murine model of direct endotoxin-induced ALI. We assessed lung injury by histopathology, pulmonary edema, inflammatory cell recruitment, and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the BAL fluid. In vitro studies demonstrated that RTD-1 suppressed CXCL8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis, TNF-mediated neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion, and proinflammatory cytokine release in activated murine alveolar immortalized macrophages (MH-S) cells. Treatment with RTD-1 significantly inhibited in vivo LPS-induced ALI by reducing pulmonary edema and histopathological changes. Treatment was associated with dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6), peroxidase activity, and neutrophil recruitment into the airways. Antiinflammatory effects were demonstrated in animals receiving RTD-1 up to 12 hours after LPS challenge. Notably, subcutaneously administered RTD-1 demonstrates good peptide stability as demonstrated by the long in vivo half-life. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that RTD-1 is efficacious in an experimental model of ALI through inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion, and the attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines and gene expression from alveolar macrophages.

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    Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment Analyses To Determine Optimal Dosing of Ceftazidime-Avibactam for the Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Exacerbations in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    American Society for Microbiology
    PM Beringer et al.

    2017 Acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE) involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Drug resistance is a significant challenge to treatment. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against isolates recovered from CF patients, including drug-resistant strains. Altered pharmacokinetics (PK) of several beta-lactam antibiotics have been reported in CF patients. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the PK of CZA and perform target attainment analyses to determine the optimal treatment regimen. The PK of CZA in 12 adult CF patients administered 3 intravenous doses of 2.5 g every 8 h infused over 2 h were determined. Population modeling utilized the maximum likelihood expectation method. Monte Carlo simulations determined the probability of target attainment (PTA). An exposure target consisting of the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the free drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (fT>MIC) was evaluated for ceftazidime (CAZ), and an exposure target consisting of the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the free drug concentration exceeds a 1-mg/liter threshold concentration (fT>1 mg/liter) was evaluated for avibactam (AVI). Published CAZ and CZA MIC distributions were incorporated to evaluate cumulative response probabilities. CAZ and AVI were best described by one-compartment models. The values of total body clearance (CL; CAZ CL, 7.53 ± 1.28 liters/h; AVI CL, 12.30 ± 1.96 liters/h) and volume of distribution (V; CAZ V, 18.80 ± 6.54 liters; AVI V, 25.30 ± 4.43 liters) were broadly similar to published values for healthy adults. CZA achieved a PTA (fT>MIC, 50%) of >0.9 for MICs of ≤16 mg/liter. The overall likelihood of a treatment response was 0.82 for CZA, whereas it was 0.42 for CAZ. These data demonstrate improved pharmacodynamics of CZA in comparison with those of CAZ and provide guidance on the optimal dosing of CZA for future studies. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT02504827.).

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    Efficacy of Rhesus Theta-Defensin-1 in Experimental Models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection and Inflammation.

    American Society for Microbiology
    PM Beringer

    2017 Chronic airway infection and inflammation contribute to the progressive loss of lung function and shortened survival of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Rhesus theta defensin-1 (RTD-1) is a macrocyclic host defense peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Combined with favorable preclinical safety and peptide stability data, RTD-1 warrants investigation to determine its therapeutic potential for treatment of CF lung disease. We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential of RTD-1 for CF airway infection and inflammation using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. We evaluated RTD-1's effects on basal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced inflammation in CF sputum leukocytes and CF bronchial epithelial cells. Peptide stability was evaluated by incubation with CF sputum. Airway pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerance studies were performed in naive mice. Aerosolized RTD-1 treatment effects were assessed by analyzing lung bacterial burdens and airway inflammation using an established model of chronic P. aeruginosa endobronchial infection in CF (ΔF508) mice. RTD-1 directly reduces metalloprotease activity, as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion from CF airway leukocyte and bronchial epithelial cells. Intrapulmonary safety, tolerability, and stability data support the aerosol administration route. RTD-1 reduced the bacterial lung burden, airway neutrophils, and inflammatory cytokines in CF mice with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. Collectively, these studies support further development of RTD-1 for treatment of CF airway disease.

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  • Affiliations
    • USC Keck School of Medicine : Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

  • Multimedia
    • Paul Beringer, PharmD
  • Selected Media Appearances

    Beringer Named Chair of Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy

    USC School of Pharmacy | 12/13/2017

    Paul Beringer, PharmD, has been appointed chair of the Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy, effective Dec. 1, 2017. He has served as interim chair of the Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy since Feb. 15.

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